Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015, Page: 103-110
Effect of Traditional Methods of De-bittering on the Proximate and Vitamin Contents of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf
Agomuo Jude Kelechi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria
Alaka Ignatius Chukwuemeka, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Akajiaku Linda Oluchi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Taiwo Mayomi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria
Received: Jan. 26, 2015;       Accepted: Feb. 6, 2015;       Published: Feb. 10, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150401.24      View  2831      Downloads  130
Abstract
Bitter leaf is a leafy vegetable that is widely consumed and cherished in South-Eastern Nigeria. The effect of traditional methods of de-bittering of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) on the proximate and vitamin contents was studied using potash, palm oil, and salt and boiling process in squeeze-washing at 3 pre-processing methods of squeeze-wash and periods of 3 to 8 minutes. The percentage retention and losses of nutrients increased simultaneously during squeeze-washing. The sample squeezed-washed with palm oil had nutrient retention ranging between 55 to 100% of moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, vitamin A and vitamin C than other squeeze-washed samples. This could be due to the rigidity of the cells of the sample squeezed-washed with palm oil which did not allow much nutrient to leach into the squeezed leaf water; whereas, the loss of nutrient was practically of the same magnitude (27.3 to 80.5%) in all other samples. The loss of nutrients was observed to be influenced directly by the cause-and-effect of disintegration changes which usually leads to softening due to the severity of the squeeze-washing on the bitter leaf instead of cellular composition or level of nutrient initially present. Palm oil should be used in the squeeze-washing of bitter leaf for better nutrient retention.
Keywords
Bitter Leaf, Palm Oil, Potash, Salt, Squeeze-Washing
To cite this article
Agomuo Jude Kelechi, Alaka Ignatius Chukwuemeka, Akajiaku Linda Oluchi, Taiwo Mayomi, Effect of Traditional Methods of De-bittering on the Proximate and Vitamin Contents of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 103-110. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150401.24
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