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Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Page: 95-104
Microbiology (Endobacteriology) of Fruit and Vegetable Crops: An Expanded and Continuing Study
Jack R. Edelman, Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, U.S.A.
Yue J. Lin, Department of Biological Sciences, Saint John’s University, Jamaica, New York, U.S. A.
Received: Jan. 21, 2016;       Accepted: Feb. 17, 2016;       Published: Mar. 4, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.12      View  5135      Downloads  208
Many commercial fruits and vegetables consumed regularly by the public were tested for the presence and identification of bacteria within their inner flesh/pulp. Our recent previous work has shown that many commercial fruits and vegetables contain various species of resident bacteria, a science we have termed ‘endobacteriololgy’. Fruits and vegetables were thoroughly washed and their inner flesh was swabbed onto agar plates. Any colonies that appeared were sent to specialized laboratories for identification by DNA sequence analysis. While many fruits and vegetables contained an inner flesh that was sterile, many others were found to harbor various species of bacteria. Among these were blueberries, rhubarb, pineapple, artichokes, okra, celery, asparagus, figs, anise/fennel, white/Rainier cherries, coconuts, cardoon, turmeric, and others. Leafy vegetables produced particularly large numbers of bacterial colonies, such as radicchio, Boston lettuce, Iceberg lettuce, red and green cabbage, Brussels sprouts, endive, bok choy/pak choy/Chinese cabbage. The presence of these species may or may not imply that consumption of these crops, when uncooked or undercooked, are hazardous to human health, except, perhaps, under certain disease/health conditions.
Bacteria, Fruits, Vegetables, Allergy, Nosocomial Infections, Appendicitis
To cite this article
Jack R. Edelman, Yue J. Lin, Microbiology (Endobacteriology) of Fruit and Vegetable Crops: An Expanded and Continuing Study, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2016, pp. 95-104. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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