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Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Page: 105-116
Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the Production and Optimization of Extruded Instant Porridge from Broken Rice Fractions Blended with Cowpea
Danbaba Nahemiah, Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria; Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Iro Nkama, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mamudu Halidu Badau, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Received: Oct. 2, 2015;       Accepted: Oct. 13, 2015;       Published: Mar. 8, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.13      View  5387      Downloads  325
Instant porridge from low grade broken rice fractions blended with cowpea to enhance protein quantity and quality was developed in this study through extrusion cooking technology. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) were adopted for the formulation and optimization of the process variables. The main objective was to obtain the optimum level of extruder barrel temperature (X1), feed moisture level (X2) and feed cowpea level (X3) that will produce optimum porridge having appreciably high protein, water dispersibility, lysine content and calorie value. ANOVA indicated significance (p˂0.05) of the models fitted in describing the relationship between the input and output variables in its natural state. The coefficient of the determination was also greater than 80% and non-significant lack-of-fit test. Numerical optimization results indicated that the optimum input variables were 120°C barrel temperature, 24g/100g cowpea formulation and 20g/100g feed moisture composition which produce 99.02% dispersibility, 24.13g/100g protein, 73.44% carbohydrate and 388.82kcal/100g calorie, and lysine of 5.02mg/g protein. These data will sharpen the weaning food industry by providing wide opportunity for new food production using low grade rice and common legumes, thereby increasing the economic values of both locally grown rice and cowpea.
Rice, Cowpea, Response Surface Methodology, Optimization, Instant Porridge
To cite this article
Danbaba Nahemiah, Iro Nkama, Mamudu Halidu Badau, Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the Production and Optimization of Extruded Instant Porridge from Broken Rice Fractions Blended with Cowpea, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2016, pp. 105-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.13
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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