2020, Volume 9
2019, Volume 8
2018, Volume 7
2017, Volume 6
2016, Volume 5
2015, Volume 4
2014, Volume 3
2013, Volume 2
2012, Volume 1

Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2019, Page: 1-9
Intake of a Japanese-Style Healthy Lunch Has Possibilities of Contributing to the Normalization of Serum Lipids and Adipokines: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study
Hiroko Inoue, Faculty of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Toyo University, Gunma, Japan
Ryosuke Sasaki, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Integrated Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
Toshiko Kuwano, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Integrated Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
Received: Dec. 17, 2018;       Accepted: Jan. 10, 2019;       Published: Jan. 31, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20190801.11      View  645      Downloads  194
To date, the incidence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing continuously worldwide; and recently, low vegetable consumption has become a major issue of concern in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome. Our study was designed to determine the influence of an on-going healthy lunch on metabolic syndrome outcomes (blood pressure, serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, serum lipids) in adult middle-aged office male workers, in Japan. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial among 38 middle-aged office male workers (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 31 males) with mostly low levels of physical activity, by providing a Japanese-style healthy lunch for 3 months (intervention group) at a workplace cafeteria. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only the nutrient contents were assessed. Furthermore, the intervention group was divided into two (non-metabolic [non-MS] and metabolic syndrome [MS] groups) for analysis. Overall 38 males with a mean age of 47.2 ± 7.9 years were included. Abdominal circumference level (p<0.05), systolic and diastolic (p<0.05) blood pressure (p<0.01), as well as serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-Chol), serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) (p<0.001) and interleukin (IL-6) (p<0.01) decreased significantly after intervention compared with the baseline in the intervention/non-MS group and intervention/MS groups. Furthermore, ghrelin (p<0.001) and desacyl ghrelin (p<0.05) increased significantly after intervention compared with the baseline in the intervention/non-MS group and intervention/MS groups. These showed an effective outcome, demonstrated by the ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch, of decreased blood pressure, serum TNF-α, IL-6, serum LDL-Chol and total cholesterol. This study presents new empirical data based on an original intervention program showing that the consumption of a Japanese-style healthy lunch containing many vegetables can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome. The findings of this study could also lead to the opportunity for participants to practice following healthy menus at home. We therefore consider that this is valuable in promoting improvement in diet in the food environment at the workplace.
Healthy Lunch, Metabolic Syndrome, Adipokines
To cite this article
Hiroko Inoue, Ryosuke Sasaki, Toshiko Kuwano, Intake of a Japanese-Style Healthy Lunch Has Possibilities of Contributing to the Normalization of Serum Lipids and Adipokines: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20190801.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mottillo, S., Filion, K. B., Genest, J., Joseph, L., Pilote, L., Poirier, P., Rinfret, S., Schiffrin, E. L. and Eisenberg, M. J. (2010). The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol, 56: 1113-1132.
Takeuchi, H., Saitoh, S., Takagi, S., Ohnishi, H., Ohhata, J., Isobe, T. and Shimamoto, K. (2005). Metabolic syndrome and cardiac disease in Japanese men: applicability of the concept of metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III to Japanese men-the Tanno and Sobetsu Study. Hypertens Res, 28: 203-208.
Moller, D. E. and Kaufman, K. D. (2005). Metabolic syndrome: a clinical and molecular perspective. Annu Rev Med, 56: 45-62.
Devaraj, S., Rosenson, R. S. and Jialal, I. (2004). Metabolic syndrome: an appraisal of the pro-inflammatory and procoagulant status. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 33: 431-453.
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare: Health Japan 21. Accessed 3 May 2018.
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare: The National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan. Accessed 3 May 2018.
Li, X. T., Liao, W., Yu, H. J., Liu, M. W., Yuan, S., Tang, B. W., Yang, X. H., Song, Y., Huang, Y., Cheng, S. L., Chen, Z. Y., Towne, S. D. Jr, Mao, Z. F. and He, Q. Q. (2017). Combined effects of fruit and vegetables intake and physical activity on the risk of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults. PLoS One. 12: e0188533.
Hong, S. A. and Kim, M. K. (2017). Relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome and its disorders in Korean women according to menopausal status. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 26: 514-523.
Kim, J. Y., Yang, Y. and Sim, Y. J. (2018). Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students’ metabolic syndrome risk factors. J Phys Ther Sci. 30: 595-600.
Esposito, K., Marfella, R., Ciotola, M., Di, Palo, C., Giugliano, F., Giugliano, G., D'Armiento, M., D'Andrea, F. and Giugliano, D. (2004). Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA. 292: 1440-1446.
Rallidis, L. S., Lekakis, J., Kolomvotsou, A., Zampelas, A., Vamvakou, G., Efstathiou, S., Dimitriadis, G., Raptis, S. A. and Kremastinos, D. T. (2009). Close adherence to a Mediterranean diet improves endothelial function in subjects with abdominal obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 90: 263-268.
Mediterranean diet. Cyprus, Croatia, Spain, Greece, Italy, Morocco and Portugal inscribed in 2013 (8.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity Accessed 3 May 2018.
Bahari, T., Uemura, H., Katsuura-Kamano, S., Yamaguchi, M., Nakamoto, M., Miki, K., Ishizu, M. and Arisawa, K. (2018). Nutrient-derived dietary patterns and their association with metabolic syndrome in a Japanese population. J Epidemiol. 28: 194-201.
Yoshiike, N., Hayashi, F., Takemi, Y., Mizoguchi, K. and Seino, F. (2007). A new food guide in Japan: the Japanese food guide Spinning Top. Nutr Rev. 65: 149-154.
Kurotani, K., Akter, S., Kashino, I., Goto, A., Mizoue, T., Noda, M., Sasazuki, S., Sawada, N., and Tsugane, S.; Japan Public Health Center based Prospective Study Group. (2016). Quality of diet and mortality among Japanese men and women: Japan Public Health Center based prospective study. BMJ. 352:i1209.
Mori, M., Hamada, A., Mori, H., Yamori, Y. and Tsuda, K. (2012). Effects of cooking using multi-ply cookware on absorption of potassium and vitamins: a randomized double-blind placebo control study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 63: 530-536.
Teramoto, T., Sasaki, J., Ueshima, H., Egusa, G., Kinoshita, M., Shimamoto, K., Daida, H., Biro, S., Hirobe, K., Funahashi, T., Yokote, K. and Yokode, M. (2007). Risk factors of atherosclerotic diseases. Executive summary of Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guideline for diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerosis cardiovascular diseases for Japanese. J Atheroscler Thromb. 14: 267-277.
Sun, K., Su, T., Li, M., Xu, B., Xu, M., Lu, J., Liu, J., Bi, Y. and Ning, G. (2014). Serum potassium level is associated with metabolic syndrome: a population-based study. Clin Nutr. 33: 521-527.
Lutsey, P. L., Steffen, L. M. and Stevens, J. (2008). Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Circulation. 117: 754–761.
Shin, D., Joh, H. K., Kim, K.H. and Park, S. M. (2013). Benefits of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome: The fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Atherosclerosis. 230: 80-85.
Weickert, M. O. and Pfeiffer, A. F. H. (2018). Impact of dietary fiber consumption on insulin resistance and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 148: 7-12.
Sluijs, I., Beulens, J. W. J., Grobbee, D. E. and van, der, Schouw, Y. T. (2009). Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men. J Nutr. 139: 987-992.
Akter, S., Nanri, A., Pham, N. M., Kurotani, K. and Mizoue, T. (2013). Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. Nutr Metab. 10: 30.
Arisawa, K., Uemura, H., Yamaguchi, M., Nakamoto, M., Hiyoshi, M., Sawachika, F. and Katsuura-Kamano, S. (2014). Associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study in a Japanese population. J Med Invest. 61: 333-344.
Hotamisligil, G. S. (2006). Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 444, 860-867.
Suganami, T. and Ogawa, Y. (2010). Adipose tissue macrophages: their role in adipose tissue remodeling. J Leuko Biol. 88: 33-39.
Koster, A., Stenholm, S., Alley, D. E., Kim, L. J., Simonsick, E. M., Kanaya, A. M., Visser, M., Houston, D. K., Nicklas, B. J., Tylavsky, F. A., Satterfield, S., Goodpaster, B. H., Ferrucci, L. and Harris, T. B; Health ABC Study. (2010). Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 18: 2354-2361.
Meshkani, R., and Adeli, K. (2009). Hepatic insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Clin Biochem. 42: 1331-1346.
Ott, B., Skurk, T., Hastreiter, L., Lagkouvardos, I., Fischer, S., Büttner, J., Kellerer, T, Clavel, T., Rychlik, M., Haller, D. and Hauner, H. (2017). Effect of caloric restriction on gut permeability, inflammation markers, and fecal microbiota in obese women. Sci Rep. 7: 11955.
Golubović, M. V., Dimić, D., Antić, S., Radenković, S., Djindjić, B. and Jovanović, M. (2013). Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women--the effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction. Vojnosanit Pregl. 70: 284-291.
Bosutti, A., Malaponte, G., Zanetti, M., Castellino, P., Heer, M., Guarnieri, G. and Biolo G. (2008). Calorie restriction modulates inactivity-induced changes in the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 93: 3226-3229.
Khoo, J., Piantadosi, C., Duncan, R., Worthley, S. G., Jenkins, A., Noakes, M., Worthley, M. I., Lange, K. and Wittert, G. A. (2011). Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med. 8: 2868-2875.
Ghalandari, H., Kamalpour, M., Alimadadi, A. and Nasrollahzadeh, J. (2017). Comparison of two calorie-reduced diets of different carbohydrate and fiber contents and a simple dietary advice aimed to modify carbohydrate intake on glycemic control and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 16: e12089.
Inoue, H., Sasaki, R., Aiso, I. and Kuwano, T. (2014). Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis. 13: 57.
Holdstock, C., Engström, B. E., Ohrvall, M., Lind, L., Sundbom, M., Karlsson, F. A. (2003). Ghrelin and adipose tissue regulatory peptides: effect of gastric bypass surgery in obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 88: 3177-3183.
Browse journals by subject