2020, Volume 9
2019, Volume 8
2018, Volume 7
2017, Volume 6
2016, Volume 5
2015, Volume 4
2014, Volume 3
2013, Volume 2
2012, Volume 1

Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 104-111
Toxicological Effects of Sudan III Azo Dye in Palm Oil on Liver Enzyme and Non Enzyme Markers of Albino Rat
Nwachoko Ndidi, Department of Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Odinga Tamuno-boma, Department of Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Akuru Udiomine Brantley, Department of Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Ibanibo Tamunomiebam Emmanuel, Department of Chemistry (Biochemistry Option), Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 16, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 1, 2020;       Published: Jul. 30, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20200904.12      View  156      Downloads  49
The economic and nutritional value of palm oil has made its utilization to be on the increase especially in Nigeria, thereby making it expensive, hence the temptation to adulterate it by bulk buyers with the wrong assertion of retaining the quality. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of adulterated palm oil on the activity of liver enzymes and non-liver enzymes markers of albino rats. Twenty rats divided into five groups of four rats each were used for this investigation for fourteen (14) days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Biochemical indices of liver enzymes makers and non-liver markers were determined. Liver enzymes ALP and ALT concentrations showed significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with group 1 and 2, also non-liver markers albumin, conjugated and total bilirubin showed significant increase (p<0.05) when compared to group 1 and 2. Histopathological examination showed mild inflammation of the liver for group 3, while histological features for groups (4 & 5) administered with higher dosage showed intense periportal and intraparenchymal inflammations. A compromise in liver function in rats administered with adulterated palm oil was observed.
Sudan III Dye, Palm Oil, Bilirubin, Albumin, Liver Function Biomarkers
To cite this article
Nwachoko Ndidi, Odinga Tamuno-boma, Akuru Udiomine Brantley, Ibanibo Tamunomiebam Emmanuel, Toxicological Effects of Sudan III Azo Dye in Palm Oil on Liver Enzyme and Non Enzyme Markers of Albino Rat, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2020, pp. 104-111. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20200904.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hayenga, I. (2011), Sudan Red Dye Standards, New standards & deuterated standards for the reliable analysis of these carcinogenic compounds in foodstuffs. Journal of Medical Research, 8 (4): 4-6.
Püntener, A. & Page, C. (2004). European Ban on Certain Azo Dyes, Quality &Environment. European Journal, 14 (2): 231-458.
Chung, K. T., Fulk, G. E. & Egan. M. (1998). Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes. Applied Environmental Microbial Journal, 3 (5): 55-56.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997). Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity. An Updating of IARC Monograph, 2 (1): 3-4.
An, Y., Jiang, L., Cao, J., Geng, C. & Zhong, L. (2007). Sudan I induces genotoxic effects and oxidative DNA damage in Hep G2 cells mutant rats. Journal of Molecular Biology, 7 (2): 167–170.
Naganna, B. (1989) Primary investigation of Plasma proteins. Journal of Biochemistry, 10 (1): 5-6.
Panda, N. C (1989). In: Textbook of Biochemistry & Human Biology, W. H & Co., London. 2ndEd. Pp. 52-66.
Moudgil, K. D & Narang, B. S (1989). The liver & biliary system. In: Textbook of Biochemistry & Human Biology, United Kingdom: Evergreen Publishing 2nd ed, Pp. 271-273.
Rodwell, V. W (1996). European study on Catabolism of proteins & of amino acidnitrogen. European Journal, 4 (2): 5-8.
Kleinman, L. I & Lorenz, J. M (1989). Clinical biochemical Analysis & Correlation. Journal of Biochemistry, 5 (2): 6-7.
Bassir, O. (1991) Handbook of Practical Biochemistry. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, Pp. 53-54.
Humason, G. L. (1996). Animal Tissue Techniques. Journal of Biochemistry, 11 (3): 57-61.
Edem, D. O. & Akpanabiatu, M. T. (2006). Effects of palm oil containing diets on enzyme activities of rats. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5 (4): 301-305.
Siew W. L. (2002). In textbook: Palm oil and Vegetables Oils in Food Technology Composition, Properties &Uses. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. 2nd Ed. Pp. 59-97.
Heber, D., Ashley, J. M., Solares, M. C., Wang, H. J. & Alfin-Slater, R. B. (1992). The effects of palm oil enriched diet on plasma lipids & lipoproteins in healthy young men. Journal of Nutritional Research, 12 (5): 553-560.
Slater, T. F. (1997). Free Radical Mechanisms in Tissue injury. London Journal, 21: 48-54.
Sundram K., Hayes, K. C. &Siru, O. H (1995), Both dietary 18:2 & 16:0 may be Required to improve the serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio in normocholesterolemic men. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 6 (1): 51-64.
Ghafourunissa, K. (1995). Nutritional & Health implications of palm oil. Journal of Medical Research, 1 (2): 233-234.
Gunstone, F. D. (2005). Evaluation of vegetable Oils on F. Shahidi Bailey’s Industrial Oil &Fat Product. Journal of Chromatography. 3 (2): 9-10.
Aparicio, R. Aparicio-Ruiz, R. (2000). Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic methods. Journal of Chromatography, 8 (1): 93-97.
Rossell, J. B., King, B., Downes, M. J. (1998). Detection of adulteration. Journal ofApplied Chemical Society, 6 (11): 7–11.
Imai, C., Watanabe, H., & Haga, N., (1994). Detection of Adulteration of Cottonseed Oil by Gas Chromatography. Journal of Chemical Society, 5 (6): 326-330.
Obi, E., Orisakwe, O. E., Asomugha, L. A &Udemezue, O. O (2004). The hepatotoxic effect of halofantrine in guinea pigs. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 36 (5): 303-305.
Orisakwe, O. E., Hussaini, D. C. & Afonne, O. J. (2003). Testicular effects of sub- chronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous extract in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18 (3): 295-298.
Kirby, A. H & Peacock, P. R., (1997). The induction of liver tumours by 4-aminoazobenzene & its N:N-dimethyl derivative in rats on a restricted diet. Journal of Pathological Bacterial, 5 (4): 1-7.
Browse journals by subject