International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences

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Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria

Received: 2 August 2014    Accepted: 18 August 2014    Published: 30 August 2014
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Abstract

The main aim of this study was to determine the total aflatoxin (TAF) contents of roasted cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), and the roasted, hulled and dehulled groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) sold and consumed in the major public areas of Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. The items were sampled from 10 different locations based on human traffic densities and sellers of the product and then analysed for TAF contents using direct competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. In the roasted cashew nuts, TAF was only dectected in samples collected at two of the locations; Wadata New Garage (0.10 µg/kg) and High-Level (0.40 µg/kg) but not detected in samples collected at the eight others. However, the detected levels were below the maximum permissible limits (MPL) of 4 µg/kg set by EU and 10.0 µg/kg set by CAC and NAFDAC, Nigeria for ‘ready to eat’ food substances. In the roasted groundnuts, levels of TAF higher than the indicated MPL were recorded in samples collected at Modern Market (12.00 µg/kg) and Railway Market (> 20.00 µg/kg) while similar result at North Bank (5.60 µg/kg) only exceeded the EU MPL. Only samples of hulled groundnuts collected at High-Level and Wurukum recorded TAF levels of 0.20 µg/kg. Dehulled groundnuts sampled at Modern market (13.10 µg/kg) and Railway market (> 20.00 µg/kg) recorded higher TAF levels than CAC and NAFDAC MPLs while similar result at North Bank (6.20 ppb) only exceeded the EU MPL. Apart from the dehulled groundnuts samples collected at the Modern market sample location which recorded a moisture level of 5.84 %; all the other samples had moisture levels below the recommended maximum safe limits of 5.80 % for stored groundnuts and cashew nuts. The results of microbial counts showed that total mesophilic bacteria varied between < 1.0 x 101 to >1.0 x 102 CFU/L, fungi varied between < 1.0 x 101 to > 1.0 x 101 CFU/L while E.coli counts varied between 0.00 to 0.43 CFU/L. The microbial contamination was generally low. However, prolonged consumption of the TAF-contaminated nuts is possible in the study area due to the rising food insecurity of majority of the populace. The chronic exposure therefore, presents health concern of aflatoxicosis.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16
Published in International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences (Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2014)
Page(s) 397-403
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Total Aflatoxins, Roasted Cashew Nuts, Roasted, Hulled and Dehulled Groundnuts, Microbial Count, Consumers

References
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[2] Kabak, B. (2010). Prevention and Management of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed. Mycotoxins in Food, Feed and Bioweapons.part 2, 201–27.
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[5] Polixeni, V. and Panagiota, M. (2008). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in breakfast cereals from Athens market: Occurrence and risk assessment. Lab of food chemistry, Department of chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Athens, Greece.
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[13] Environment, Health and Safety Online (EHSO), (2014). Aflatoxins in Your Food - and their Effect on Your Health. http://www.ehso.com/ehshome/aflatoxin.php Accessed: 8/6/2014.
[14] Ribeiro, J., Cavaglieri, L., Fraga, M., Direito, G., Dalcero, A. and Rosa, C. (2006). Influence of water activity, temperature and time on mycotoxins production on barley rootlets. Letters in Applied Microbiology 42, 179 – 184.
[15] Gordon, S.S. (2003). Aflatoxin and food safety: Recent African perspectives. Promec Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa. Journal of Toxicology -Toxin Reviews 22, 264 – 268.
[16] Bankole, S.A., Schollenberger, M. and Drochner, W. (2006). Mycotoxin contamination in food systems in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Mycotoxin Research 22, 163 – 169.
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  • APA Style

    S. T. Ubwa, J. Abah, B. O. Atu, R. L. Tyohemba, J. T. Yande. (2014). Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3(5), 397-403. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16

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    ACS Style

    S. T. Ubwa; J. Abah; B. O. Atu; R. L. Tyohemba; J. T. Yande. Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2014, 3(5), 397-403. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16

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    AMA Style

    S. T. Ubwa, J. Abah, B. O. Atu, R. L. Tyohemba, J. T. Yande. Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2014;3(5):397-403. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16,
      author = {S. T. Ubwa and J. Abah and B. O. Atu and R. L. Tyohemba and J. T. Yande},
      title = {Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria},
      journal = {International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences},
      volume = {3},
      number = {5},
      pages = {397-403},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijnfs.20140305.16},
      abstract = {The main aim of this study was to determine the total aflatoxin (TAF) contents of roasted cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), and the roasted, hulled and dehulled groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) sold and consumed in the major public areas of Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. The items were sampled from 10 different locations based on human traffic densities and sellers of the product and then analysed for TAF contents using direct competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. In the roasted cashew nuts, TAF was only dectected in samples collected at two of the locations; Wadata New Garage (0.10 µg/kg) and High-Level (0.40 µg/kg) but not detected in samples collected at the eight others. However, the detected levels were below the maximum permissible limits (MPL) of 4 µg/kg set by EU and 10.0 µg/kg set by CAC and NAFDAC, Nigeria for ‘ready to eat’ food substances. In the roasted groundnuts, levels of TAF higher than the indicated MPL were recorded in samples collected at Modern Market (12.00 µg/kg) and Railway Market (> 20.00 µg/kg) while similar result at North Bank (5.60 µg/kg) only exceeded the EU MPL. Only samples of hulled groundnuts collected at High-Level and Wurukum recorded TAF levels of 0.20 µg/kg. Dehulled groundnuts sampled at Modern market (13.10 µg/kg) and Railway market (> 20.00 µg/kg) recorded higher TAF levels than CAC and NAFDAC MPLs while similar result at North Bank (6.20 ppb) only exceeded the EU MPL. Apart from the dehulled groundnuts samples collected at the Modern market sample location which recorded a moisture level of 5.84 %; all the other samples had moisture levels below the recommended maximum safe limits of 5.80 % for stored groundnuts and cashew nuts. The results of microbial counts showed that total mesophilic bacteria varied between 1.0 x 102 CFU/L, fungi varied between  1.0 x 101 CFU/L while E.coli counts varied between 0.00 to 0.43 CFU/L. The microbial contamination was generally low. However, prolonged consumption of the TAF-contaminated nuts is possible in the study area due to the rising food insecurity of majority of the populace. The chronic exposure therefore, presents health concern of aflatoxicosis.},
     year = {2014}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Assessment of Total Aflatoxins Level of Two Major Nuts Consumed in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria
    AU  - S. T. Ubwa
    AU  - J. Abah
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    AU  - R. L. Tyohemba
    AU  - J. T. Yande
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16
    T2  - International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
    JF  - International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
    JO  - International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2327-2716
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140305.16
    AB  - The main aim of this study was to determine the total aflatoxin (TAF) contents of roasted cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), and the roasted, hulled and dehulled groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) sold and consumed in the major public areas of Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. The items were sampled from 10 different locations based on human traffic densities and sellers of the product and then analysed for TAF contents using direct competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. In the roasted cashew nuts, TAF was only dectected in samples collected at two of the locations; Wadata New Garage (0.10 µg/kg) and High-Level (0.40 µg/kg) but not detected in samples collected at the eight others. However, the detected levels were below the maximum permissible limits (MPL) of 4 µg/kg set by EU and 10.0 µg/kg set by CAC and NAFDAC, Nigeria for ‘ready to eat’ food substances. In the roasted groundnuts, levels of TAF higher than the indicated MPL were recorded in samples collected at Modern Market (12.00 µg/kg) and Railway Market (> 20.00 µg/kg) while similar result at North Bank (5.60 µg/kg) only exceeded the EU MPL. Only samples of hulled groundnuts collected at High-Level and Wurukum recorded TAF levels of 0.20 µg/kg. Dehulled groundnuts sampled at Modern market (13.10 µg/kg) and Railway market (> 20.00 µg/kg) recorded higher TAF levels than CAC and NAFDAC MPLs while similar result at North Bank (6.20 ppb) only exceeded the EU MPL. Apart from the dehulled groundnuts samples collected at the Modern market sample location which recorded a moisture level of 5.84 %; all the other samples had moisture levels below the recommended maximum safe limits of 5.80 % for stored groundnuts and cashew nuts. The results of microbial counts showed that total mesophilic bacteria varied between 1.0 x 102 CFU/L, fungi varied between  1.0 x 101 CFU/L while E.coli counts varied between 0.00 to 0.43 CFU/L. The microbial contamination was generally low. However, prolonged consumption of the TAF-contaminated nuts is possible in the study area due to the rising food insecurity of majority of the populace. The chronic exposure therefore, presents health concern of aflatoxicosis.
    VL  - 3
    IS  - 5
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, P. M. B. 1026, Makurdi, Nigeria

  • Department of Mathematics, Science and Sport Education, Faculty of Education, University of Namibia, Katima Mulilo Campus, Private Bag, 1096, Katima Mulilo, Namibia

  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, P. M. B. 1026, Makurdi, Nigeria

  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, P. M. B. 1026, Makurdi, Nigeria

  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, P. M. B. 1026, Makurdi, Nigeria

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